4. The stall turn:
The stall turn is
almost the same as Chandelle. In the Chandelle, the angle is less
and the maneuver does not cause the airplane to stall. Some may also call
this maneuver a hammerhead turn, but a true hammerhead
turn has enough power to keep flying all the way through the maneuver
and the arc in area marked 'B' in the diagram is wider and these
maneuvers makes use of
the airplane's rudder and is a simple maneuver to perform.
How to fly it: As before, begin with a straight and
level flight path. At point A in the picture above,
increase throttle slightly and apply up elevator, putting the airplane
into a vertical climb. Adjust the rudder and elevator as necessary to
maintain the vertical climb without going into the beginnings
of a loop.
Let it climb for a couple of seconds and then, at point B,
reduce throttle*, release the elevator stick back to
the neutral position and - here's the important part - apply
full rudder to the left or right. If the airplane doesn't look
like it's going to turn on its tail, give the throttle a small blip to
get some prop wash (air movement) over the rudder.
Once the airplane has spun round on its tail, return the rudder to
neutral and let the airplane go naturally into a brief vertical dive for
a second or so. Then, at point C, apply both motor
power and up elevator to pull out of the dive and resume straight and
*How much you reduce throttle depends on a few
things, not least of which is the type of plane and size of rudder. You
might need to keep some power on to increase the prop wash (i.e.
airflow) over the rudder, to facilitate the turn.
Below is the stall turn on video (on the
RealFlight rc flight simulator), including close-ups of the Tx stick inputs and the airplane's response...
If you want you can use the wind direction to help you perform the stall turn by flying crosswind - fly at 90 degrees to the wind and turn the airplane into the wind at the top of the climb. The wind on the fin pushes the model round for the perfect maneuver!
The picture below shows this:
The Immelmann Turn:
Named after the German WWI fighter ace Max Immelmann, this
aerobatic maneuver is a modified and simplified version of his attack
maneuver that he used during dogfights.
How to do it: Commence the maneuver as if performing a
standard inside loop i.e. enter the maneuver from straight and
level flight at point A in the picture above, with full power. Let the
airplane complete its vertical climb and roll over onto its back, then
at point C use aileron to roll through 180 degrees.
Level the airplane out once it has rolled over, and exit the maneuver on
a straight and level course, higher than and in the opposite direction
to your initial entry course.
Below is the Immelmann Turn on video (on the RealFlight G4 rc flight simulator), including close-ups of the Tx stick inputs and the airplane's response...
The Split-S is essentially an inverted Immelmann turn, if you like.
How to do it: Starting with straight and level flight
at a higher altitude, the airplane is rolled through 180 degrees at the
start of the maneuver. Up elevator is applied as soon as the
airplane is inverted, and the throttle reduced. The airplane then enters
an 'inverted' dive and is flown towards the ground.
Keeping up elevator applied, the airplane is pulled out of the dive and
returned to straight and level flight to exit the Split-S maneuver. No
rolling out is necessary, as the airplane will already be the correct
Below is the Split-S on video (on the RealFlight G4 rc flight simulator), including close-ups of the Tx stick inputs and the airplane's response...
The spin is a
favorite rc airplane aerobatic maneuver and spins can
go very well or disastrously wrong, depending on how much altitude you
leave yourself to recover! During a spin, the airplane flies vertically
downwards while rotating about it's longitudinal axis (ie about
its fuselage). Ailerons are needed for a smooth spin, trying to spin
your airplane with rudder only will more than likely result in nothing
more than a wishy-washy 'spiral dive'.
How to do it: Enter the maneuver into wind, flying
straight and level but at a slow speed and with plenty of altitude
(point 'A' in the picture above). Slow your airplane further by reducing
throttle completely and applying up elevator - not too much, but just
enough to initiate a full stall. The timing here is quite critical, you
need to apply full rudder and full aileron (both in the same direction)
just as the airplane stalls, point 'B' in the picture.
If you've got it right, the airplane will continue its stall while
entering a spin. Keep both rudder and aileron fully deflected for as
long as you want to hold the spin. Recovery is simply a case of
returning rudder and aileron to neutral while applying up elevator and
throttle to pull the airplane out of the dive (point 'C').